Glossary

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Key terms and acronyms to help you stay up-to-date with Shot@Life’s lifesaving work.

U.S. Government Advocacy Terms

Appropriations: Congressional legislation (or bills) that assign U.S. government funds to various budgets, programs, and agencies, including foreign aid.

HELP: Senate Appropriations Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.

LHHS: House Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health, and Human Services.

SFOPS: House Appropriations Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs.

Vaccination Terms

Active immunity: production of antibodies against a specific disease.

Antibody: proteins found in the blood that protect the body by binding to and destroying antigens.

Antigen: bacteria or viruses that are capable of causing disease.

Attenuated vaccine: vaccine in which the live virus is weakened .

Epidemic: a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease.

Herd immunity, population-wide immunity, or community immunity: a form of indirect protection from an infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of the population is immune to a disease, protecting those in the population who are not yet immune.

Pandemic: an epidemic occurring over a large geographic area.

Passive immunity: production of antibodies against a disease from another animal.

Immunosuppression: when the immune system is unable to protect the body from disease.

Vaccine hesitancy: the reluctance or refusal to be vaccinated or have one’s children vaccinated.

Global Health Terms

Bacteria: a microscopic living organism, usually one-celled, that can be found everywhere. While not all bacteria are dangerous, many can lead to serious infections.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR): the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of treatment medication, a rising global health threat.

Measles: a viral infection that causes high fever, cough, and inflamed eyes. In severe cases it can lead to swelling of the brain, blindness, and can be fatal.

Polio: a virus that may cause muscle weakening, paralysis. and even death.

Pneumonia: a bacterial infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs, leading to impaired breathing which can be fatal.

Rotavirus: a virus that causes inflammation of the stomach or intestines, often leading to severe dehydration, hospitalization, or even death .

Universal health coverage (UHC): when a full range of health services is available to all members of a country or region.

Virus: a microscopic parasite which can infect living organisms and cause disease. A virus requires a living host to survive and spread.

Partner Organizations Acronyms

AANP: American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

CDC: The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

GAVI: officially Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance is a public–private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunization in poor countries.

GFWC: The General Federation of Women’s Clubs.

M&RI: Measles and Rubella Initiative.

NAPNAP: National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners.

 SnPHA: Student National Pharmaceutical Associations.

United Nations Terms

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): 17 global goals set by the UN General Assembly to be achieved by 2030.

Sustainable Development Goal 3: to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being at all ages.

UNICEF: The United Nations Children’s Fund.

WHO: World Health Organization.