Appropriations: Congressional legislation (or bills) that assign U.S. government funds to various budgets, programs, and agencies, including foreign aid.
HELP: Senate Appropriations Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.
LHHS: House Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health, and Human Services.
SFOPS: House Appropriations Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs.
Active immunity: production of antibodies against a specific disease.
Antibody: proteins found in the blood that protect the body by binding to and destroying antigens.
Antigen: bacteria or viruses that are capable of causing disease.
Attenuated vaccine: vaccine in which the live virus is weakened .
Epidemic: a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease.
Herd immunity, population-wide immunity, or community immunity: a form of indirect protection from an infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of the population is immune to a disease, protecting those in the population who are not yet immune.
Pandemic: an epidemic occurring over a large geographic area.
Passive immunity: production of antibodies against a disease from another animal.
Immunosuppression: when the immune system is unable to protect the body from disease.
Vaccine hesitancy: the reluctance or refusal to be vaccinated or have one’s children vaccinated.
Bacteria: a microscopic living organism, usually one-celled, that can be found everywhere. While not all bacteria are dangerous, many can lead to serious infections.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR): the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of treatment medication, a rising global health threat.
Measles: a viral infection that causes high fever, cough, and inflamed eyes. In severe cases it can lead to swelling of the brain, blindness, and can be fatal.
Polio: a virus that may cause muscle weakening, paralysis. and even death.
Pneumonia: a bacterial infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs, leading to impaired breathing which can be fatal.
Rotavirus: a virus that causes inflammation of the stomach or intestines, often leading to severe dehydration, hospitalization, or even death .
Universal health coverage (UHC): when a full range of health services is available to all members of a country or region.
Virus: a microscopic parasite which can infect living organisms and cause disease. A virus requires a living host to survive and spread.
AANP: American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
CDC: The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
GAVI: officially Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance is a public–private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunization in poor countries.
GFWC: The General Federation of Women’s Clubs.
M&RI: Measles and Rubella Initiative.
NAPNAP: National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners.
SNPhA: Student National Pharmaceutical Association.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): 17 global goals set by the UN General Assembly to be achieved by 2030.
Sustainable Development Goal 3: to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being at all ages.
UNICEF: The United Nations Children’s Fund.
WHO: World Health Organization.